Optimize MySQL Performance with Mysqltuner

This short tutorial describes the steps to optimize the performance of a MySQL database with the mysqltuner script. This tool can be used for MySQL and MariaDB.

Install mysqltuner

The mysqltuner High-Performance MySQL Tuning Script is available as a package on Debian 10 and Ubuntu 20.04, install it with at:

sudo apt install mysqltuner

For other Distributions, download and install mysqltuner as described below:

cd /usr/local/bin
wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/major/MySQLTuner-perl/master/mysqltuner.pl
mv mysqltuner.pl mysqltuner
chmod +x mysqltuner

Optimize MySQL Performance

Run mysqltuner:

mysqltuner

Then enter root as the username and the MySQL root password.

You will get an output similar to this:

[email protected]:/# mysqltuner
>> MySQLTuner 1.7.13 - Major Hayden <[email protected]>
>> Bug reports, feature requests, and downloads at http://mysqltuner.com/
>> Run with '--help' for additional options and output filtering

[--] Skipped version check for MySQLTuner script
[OK] Logged in using credentials from Debian maintenance account.
[!!] Currently running unsupported MySQL version 8.0.23-0ubuntu0.20.04.1
[OK] Operating on 64-bit architecture

-------- Log file Recommendations ------------------------------------------------------------------
[--] Log file: /var/log/mysql/error.log(4K)
[OK] Log file /var/log/mysql/error.log exists
[OK] Log file /var/log/mysql/error.log is readable.
[OK] Log file /var/log/mysql/error.log is not empty
[OK] Log file /var/log/mysql/error.log is smaller than 32 Mb
[!!] /var/log/mysql/error.log contains 6 warning(s).
[!!] /var/log/mysql/error.log contains 3 error(s).
[--] 4 start(s) detected in /var/log/mysql/error.log
[--] 1) 2021-04-28T08:51:46.032696Z 0 [System] [MY-010931] [Server] /usr/sbin/mysqld: ready for connections. Version: '8.0.23-0ubuntu0.20.04.1' socket: '/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock' port: 3306 (Ubuntu).
[--] 2) 2021-04-28T08:51:45.475316Z 0 [System] [MY-011323] [Server] X Plugin ready for connections. Bind-address: '127.0.0.1' port: 33060, socket: /var/run/mysqld/mysqlx.sock
[--] 3) 2021-04-28T08:51:41.150692Z 0 [System] [MY-011323] [Server] X Plugin ready for connections. Bind-address: '127.0.0.1' port: 33060
[--] 4) 2021-04-28T08:51:37.470204Z 0 [System] [MY-010931] [Server] /usr/sbin/mysqld: ready for connections. Version: '8.0.23-0ubuntu0.20.04.1' socket: '/tmp/tmp.q7NxVUnzSo/mysqld.sock' port: 0 (Ubuntu).
[--] 2 shutdown(s) detected in /var/log/mysql/error.log
[--] 1) 2021-04-28T08:51:42.544794Z 0 [System] [MY-010910] [Server] /usr/sbin/mysqld: Shutdown complete (mysqld 8.0.23-0ubuntu0.20.04.1) (Ubuntu).
[--] 2) 2021-04-28T08:51:38.956051Z 0 [System] [MY-010910] [Server] /usr/sbin/mysqld: Shutdown complete (mysqld 8.0.23-0ubuntu0.20.04.1) (Ubuntu).

-------- Storage Engine Statistics -----------------------------------------------------------------
[--] Status: +ARCHIVE +BLACKHOLE +CSV -FEDERATED +InnoDB +MEMORY +MRG_MYISAM +MyISAM +PERFORMANCE_SCHEMA
[--] Data in InnoDB tables: 16.0K (Tables: 1)
[OK] Total fragmented tables: 0

-------- Analysis Performance Metrics --------------------------------------------------------------
[--] innodb_stats_on_metadata: OFF
[OK] No stat updates during querying INFORMATION_SCHEMA.

-------- Security Recommendations ------------------------------------------------------------------
[--] Skipped due to unsupported feature for MySQL 8

-------- CVE Security Recommendations --------------------------------------------------------------
[OK] NO SECURITY CVE FOUND FOR YOUR VERSION

-------- Performance Metrics -----------------------------------------------------------------------
[--] Up for: 5m 1s (15 q [0.050 qps], 13 conn, TX: 56K, RX: 1K)
[--] Reads / Writes: 100% / 0%
[--] Binary logging is enabled (GTID MODE: OFF)
[--] Physical Memory : 1.9G
[--] Max MySQL memory : 349.4M
[--] Other process memory: 162.7M
[--] Total buffers: 176.0M global + 1.1M per thread (151 max threads)
[--] P_S Max memory usage: 72B
[--] Galera GCache Max memory usage: 0B
[OK] Maximum reached memory usage: 177.1M (8.94% of installed RAM)
[OK] Maximum possible memory usage: 349.4M (17.64% of installed RAM)
[OK] Overall possible memory usage with other process is compatible with memory available
[OK] Slow queries: 0% (0/15)
[OK] Highest usage of available connections: 0% (1/151)
[OK] Aborted connections: 0.00% (0/13)
[!!] name resolution is active : a reverse name resolution is made for each new connection and can reduce performance
[--] Query cache have been removed in MySQL 8
[OK] No Sort requiring temporary tables
[OK] No joins without indexes
[OK] Temporary tables created on disk: 0% (0 on disk / 4 total)
[OK] Thread cache hit rate: 92% (1 created / 13 connections)
[OK] Table cache hit rate: 56% (104 open / 185 opened)
[OK] Open file limit used: 0% (2/10K)
[OK] Table locks acquired immediately: 100% (4 immediate / 4 locks)
[OK] Binlog cache memory access: 0% (0 Memory / 0 Total)

-------- Performance schema ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[--] Memory used by P_S: 72B
[--] Sys schema is installed.

-------- ThreadPool Metrics ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[--] ThreadPool stat is disabled.

-------- MyISAM Metrics ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
[!!] Key buffer used: 18.2% (3M used / 16M cache)
[!!] Cannot calculate MyISAM index size - re-run script as root user

-------- InnoDB Metrics ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
[--] InnoDB is enabled.
[--] InnoDB Thread Concurrency: 0
[OK] InnoDB File per table is activated
[OK] InnoDB buffer pool / data size: 128.0M/16.0K
[!!] Ratio InnoDB log file size / InnoDB Buffer pool size (75 %): 48.0M * 2/128.0M should be equal 25%
[OK] InnoDB buffer pool instances: 1
[--] Number of InnoDB Buffer Pool Chunk : 1 for 1 Buffer Pool Instance(s)
[OK] Innodb_buffer_pool_size aligned with Innodb_buffer_pool_chunk_size & Innodb_buffer_pool_instances
[OK] InnoDB Read buffer efficiency: 94.53% (13840 hits/ 14641 total)
[OK] InnoDB Write log efficiency: 98.44% (632 hits/ 642 total)
[OK] InnoDB log waits: 0.00% (0 waits / 10 writes)

-------- AriaDB Metrics ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
[--] AriaDB is disabled.

-------- TokuDB Metrics ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
[--] TokuDB is disabled.

-------- XtraDB Metrics ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
[--] XtraDB is disabled.

-------- Galera Metrics ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
[--] Galera is disabled.

-------- Replication Metrics -----------------------------------------------------------------------
[--] Galera Synchronous replication: NO
[--] No replication slave(s) for this server.
[--] Binlog format: ROW
[--] XA support enabled: ON
[--] Semi synchronous replication Master: Not Activated
[--] Semi synchronous replication Slave: Not Activated
[--] This is a standalone server

-------- Recommendations ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
General recommendations:
Control warning line(s) into /var/log/mysql/error.log file
Control error line(s) into /var/log/mysql/error.log file
MySQL was started within the last 24 hours - recommendations may be inaccurate
Configure your accounts with ip or subnets only, then update your configuration with skip-name-resolve=1
Before changing innodb_log_file_size and/or innodb_log_files_in_group read this: https://bit.ly/2TcGgtU
Variables to adjust:
innodb_log_file_size should be (=16M) if possible, so InnoDB total log files size equals to 25% of buffer pool size.
query_cache_size (> 16M)
tmp_table_size (> 32M)
max_heap_table_size (> 16M)
table_cache (> 64)

The script recommends adjusting or adding the following variables in the MySQL configuration file. On current Debian and Ubuntu versions, the file is /etc/mysql/mysql.conf.d/mysql.cnf for MySQL and /etc/mysql/mariadb.conf.d/50-server.cnf for MariaDB.Other common paths are just /etc/my.cnf and /etc/mysql/my.cnf, these are commonly used on older Linux versions and on CentOS.

Adjust MySQL configuration

Open my.cnf file:

nano /etc/mysql/mysql.conf.d/mysql.cnf

and increase or set the variables in the [mysqld] section of the file. Mine looks now like this:

#
# The MySQL database server configuration file.
#
# One can use all long options that the program supports.
# Run program with --help to get a list of available options and with
# --print-defaults to see which it would actually understand and use.
#
# For explanations see
# http://dev.mysql.com/doc/mysql/en/server-system-variables.html

# Here is entries for some specific programs
# The following values assume you have at least 32M ram

[mysqld]
#
# * Basic Settings
#
user = mysql
# pid-file = /var/run/mysqld/mysqld.pid
# socket = /var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
# port = 3306
# datadir = /var/lib/mysql

# If MySQL is running as a replication slave, this should be
# changed. Ref https://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/8.0/en/server-system-variables.html#sysvar_tmpdir
# tmpdir = /tmp
#
# Instead of skip-networking the default is now to listen only on
# localhost which is more compatible and is not less secure.
bind-address = 127.0.0.1
mysqlx-bind-address = 127.0.0.1
#
# * Fine Tuning
#
key_buffer_size = 16M
# max_allowed_packet = 64M
# thread_stack = 256K

# thread_cache_size = -1

# This replaces the startup script and checks MyISAM tables if needed
# the first time they are touched
myisam-recover-options = BACKUP

# max_connections = 151

# table_open_cache = 4000

#
# * Logging and Replication
#
# Both location gets rotated by the cronjob.
#
# Log all queries
# Be aware that this log type is a performance killer.
# general_log_file = /var/log/mysql/query.log
# general_log = 1
#
# Error log - should be very few entries.
#
log_error = /var/log/mysql/error.log
#
# Here you can see queries with especially long duration
# slow_query_log = 1
# slow_query_log_file = /var/log/mysql/mysql-slow.log
# long_query_time = 2
# log-queries-not-using-indexes
#
# The following can be used as easy to replay backup logs or for replication.
# note: if you are setting up a replication slave, see README.Debian about
# other settings you may need to change.
# server-id = 1
# log_bin = /var/log/mysql/mysql-bin.log
# binlog_expire_logs_seconds = 2592000
max_binlog_size = 100M
# binlog_do_db = include_database_name
# binlog_ignore_db = include_database_name

query_cache_limit       = 1M
query_cache_size        = 32M
tmp_table_size        = 64M
max_heap_table_size        = 32M

Then save the file and restart MySQL.

systemctl restart mysql

Run mysqltuner again after a few hours. Check if the values are fine now or if they have to be increased to a higher value.

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